Solar modulation of the spectra of protons and helium nuclei in the PAMELA experiment

A. G. Maiorov, O. Adriani, G. Barbarino, G. A. Bazilevskaia, R. Bellotti, M. Boezio, E. A. Bogomolov, L. Bonechi, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. V. Borisov, S. Bottai, A. Bruno, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, R. Carbone, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, I. A. Danil'ChenkoM. P. De Pascale, V. Di Felice, A. M. Gal'Per, V. Gillard, L. A. Grishantseva, G. Jerse, A. V. Karelin, S. V. Koldashov, S. A. Koldobskii, S. Yu Krutkov, A. N. Kvashnin, A. A. Leonov, V. V. Malakhov, V. Malvezzi, L. Marcelli, W. Menn, V. V. Mikhailov, E. Mocchiutti, N. Mori, N. V. Nikonov, G. Osteria, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, C. Pizzolotto, M. Ricci, S. Ricciarini, M. F. Runtso, M. Simon, N. De Simone, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, Yu I. Stozhkov, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. I. Vasil'Ev, S. A. Voronov, Y. Wu, Yu T. Yurkin, G. Zampa, N. Zampa, V. G. Zverev

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8 Scopus citations


We present the energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei of cosmic rays obtained in the PAMELA experiment on board the satellite RESURS-DK1 for the period from August 2006 to December 2009. The spectra were measured in the energy range of 100 MeV/nucleon to 100 GeV/nucleon using a magnetic spectrometer within the apparatus. Variations in the solar modulation potential for protons and helium nuclei were calculated on the basis of the monthly mean particle fluxes. A force field model was used to compare the modulation with measurements from balloon experiments, and with measurements from a network of neutron monitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)779-781
Number of pages3
JournalBulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors are grateful to the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Council on Outer Space; the Roskosmos Federal Space Agency; the TsSKB Progress State Research and Production Space Rocket Center; the Research Center for Real Time Earth Monitoring; the Italian Space Agency; the German Aerospace Center; the Swedish National Space Board; the Swedish Research Council; and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project nos. 10 02 01301a and 09 02 00394a.


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