SNAC for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability: An Updated Review

Nagavendra Kommineni, Vaskuri G.S. Sainaga Jyothi, Arun Butreddy, Saka Raju, Tovi Shapira, Wahid Khan, Pavimol Angsantikul, Abraham J. Domb

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The delivery of proteins and peptides via an oral route poses numerous challenges to improve the oral bioavailability and patient compliance. To overcome these challenges, as well as to improve the permeation of proteins and peptides via intestinal mucosa, several chemicals have been studied such as surfactants, fatty acids, bile salts, pH modifiers, and chelating agents, amongst these medium chain fatty acid like C10 (sodium caprate) and Sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC) and its derivatives that have been well studied from a clinical perspective. This current review enumerates the challenges involved in protein and peptide delivery via the oral route, i.e., non-invasive routes of protein and peptide administration. This review also covers the chemistry behind SNAC and toxicity as well as mechanisms to enhance the oral delivery of clinically proven molecules like simaglutide and other small molecules under clinical development, as well as other permeation enhancers for efficient delivery of proteins and peptides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)633-650
Number of pages18
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Issue number3
Early online date20 Dec 2022
StatePublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • SNAC
  • oral bioavailability
  • permeation enhancement
  • protein and peptide delivery


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