Sleep habits, quality and chronotype of Paralympic athletes

Dekkel Bachar, Osnat Fliess Douer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study aimed to understand the sleeping habits of Israeli Paralympic Athletes as a pre-intervention stage to implement sleep hygiene programs. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used to assess sleep quality. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to determine sleepiness throughout the day. Chronotype was detected using the Horne and Östberg Questionnaire. Para-athletes who were expected to represent Israel at the Tokyo 2020 games were approached via email. The surveys were collected online between April and August, 2018. Para-athletes (n = 52, male = 32, female = 20, mean age = 31.2y, SD = 11.9, from 13 different sport disciplines) completed the online surveys. One-way ANOVA test was used to compare sleep efficiency between the sleepy and non-sleepy groups. MANOVA test was performed to evaluate differences between sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and latency between the good and poor sleep quality groups. Non-parametric tests were conducted to analyze the association between the results of the three questionnaires and each sample characteristics. Under a third (31%, n=16) of the athletes slept between 6.5 to 7 hours per night, and a further 29% (n=15) slept less than 6 hours. From the MANOVA analysis, athletes with poor sleep quality had statistically significantly lower sleep efficiency (p=.028, F(1,50)=5.11, medium effect size:np2 =0.093), greater daytime dysfunction (p<.001, F(1,50)=14.19, large effect size: np2 =.221), and greater sleep latency (p<.001, F(1,50)=15.08, large effect size: np2 =.232), than athletes with good sleep quality. Of the athletes, 33% reported having ‘moderate to excessive daytime sleepiness’, 46% did not train at times that match their chronotype.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
JournalEuropean Journal of Adapted Physical Activity
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license


  • Para-athlete
  • Sleep questionnaires
  • Sleepiness
  • Tokyo 2020


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