Continuous periodical monitoring of clopidogrel in physiological body fluids is indispensable in medical diagnosis of heart ailments and cardiovascular diseases. A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor has been fabricated with silver nanoparticles embedded chitosan-carbon nanotube hybrid composite (AgChit-CNT) as sensor interface for detection of the important anti-platelet drug, clopidogrel (CLP). Synthesized AgChit-CNT nanocomposite is examined by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy for its chemical and structural characteristics. Crystalline silver nanoparticles of about 35 nm are well distributed in the composite and have formed continuous chain like linkages with CNTs all throughout. Electrochemical responses of the fabricated AgChit-CNT nanocomposite electrode for the determination of CLP have been examined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nanoAg patterned CNT nanocomposite interface acts as an excellent electron transfer mediator towards the oxidation of clopidogrel. Electrochemical determination of CLP was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and amperometric analysis under optimized conditions. The limit of detection by DPV and amperometry were 30 nM and 10 nM, respectively, and the time of the analysis is as low as 10 s. Practical applicability for determination in artificially prepared urine and pharmaceutical formulation has been examined with good recovery limits of 95.2 to 102.6%.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
- Carbon nanotubes
- Electrochemical detection
- Flow-cell analysis
- Silver nanoparticles