This article provides a window into a variety of views and teachings about the equality of Jews and non-Jews that are found in the writings of Sephardic rabbis in modern times. Unlike almost all writing on Judaism in modern times, which has focused on religious thinkers living in Europe or in North America, my examples are drawn from the writings of rabbis living in Muslim-majority lands, i.e., in the Middle East and North Africa, where Judaism originated and where Jewish communities have existed continuously for millennia. These attitudes range from negative and antagonistic essentialist perspectives to ideals of mutual cultural enrichment and joint co-operation in the realization of righteousness and justice in the life of all peoples. The rich variety of attitudes and values exemplified in these texts is typical of the Jewish rabbinic tradition, in which a plurality of views exists on almost any topic.
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