Shifting between Self-States and Narrative Change—Implicit and Explicit Change Processes in Psychotherapy

Sharon Shimshi, Rivka Tuval-Mashiach, Tuvia Peri

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1 Scopus citations


This study examined the relationship between implicit and explicit levels of change in psychotherapy—the ability to shift between self-states, measured by the Two Person APES (TPA), a relational extension of the Assimilation of Problematic Experiences Scale (APES), and the emergence of exceptions to the problematic self-narrative, measured by the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS). The contribution of each of these dimensions of change to session outcome was also examined. Eighty sessions of eight psychodynamic treatments (10 sessions each) were sampled and coded according to the TPA and the IMCS. Session outcome was measured by the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS). A repeated measures correlation approach was used, revealing a positive association between IMs and client TPA. Also, IMs showed stronger correlations with session outcome compared to TPA. These results indicate that a growing ability to shift between self-states in the implicit level is related to the client’s ability to construct new meanings in the explicit level, and that these explicit changes have stronger correlations with functioning improvement at the session level than implicit processes concerning the renewal of dialogue between self-states.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Constructivist Psychology
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

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© 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • Self-states
  • innovative moments
  • psychodynamic psychotherapy
  • self-narratives
  • two-person psychology


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