Self-Efficacy Effects of Maccabi Telecare Center Diabetes Mellitus Intervention: Do Men and Women Benefit Equally?

Angela Irony, Racheli Magnezi, Yael Vilensky Sela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Purpose: A growing body of evidence points to physiological and psychological gender differences in the manifestation and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study is part of a large-scale, prospective trial investigating the effects of Maccabi Telecare Center (MTC) interventions on self-efficacy. Here, we focus on the effects of gender on diabetes self-efficacy related to depressive symptom severity and illness representation. Methods: A prospective open-label study investigating the effect of tele-based intervention on diabetes self-efficacy. Participants completed the following questionnaires: Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) (self-efficacy), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) (depression), and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) (illness representation). Data were collected at three time points: Baseline (T1), 3–4 months (T2), and 8–9 months (T3). Results: Although men and women exhibited similar baseline self-efficacy levels, men scored significantly higher than women over time, at T2 (p <.05) and T3 (p <.05). Consistent gender differences were observed throughout the study in depression and illness representations: women scored higher than men on PHQ-9 (3.94 vs. 5.57, p <.001), and perceived their diabetes consequences as more severe than men (p <.001). A linear regression analyses indicated that MTC intervention, age, baseline self-efficacy, and depression at T3 explained 39.8% of the variance of self-efficacy at the conclusion of the study for both genders, although more strongly for men. Implications for Practice: This study indicates that the effects of a treatment intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are gender specific. Thus, gender-tailored interventions may be advised to further improve outcomes for women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-288
Number of pages14
JournalResearch and theory for nursing practice
Issue number3
Early online date23 Jun 2021
StatePublished - 2021

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© Copyright 2021 Springer Publishing Company, LLC.


  • depression
  • gender
  • self-efficacy
  • telecare
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus


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