Conformationally restrained polyamine analog PG11047 is a well-known drug candidate that modulates polyamine metabolism and inhibits cancer cell growth in a broad spectrum of cancers. Here, we report a structure–activity relationship study of the PG11047 analogs (HPGs) containing alkyl chains of varying length, while keeping the unsaturated spermine backbone unchanged. Synthesis of higher symmetrical homologues was achieved through a synthetic route with fewer steps than the previous route to PG11047. The amphiphilic HPG analogs underwent self-assembly and formed spherically shaped nanoparticles whose size increased with the hydrophobic alkyl group’s increasing chain length. Assessment of the in vitro anticancer activity showed more than an eight-fold increase in the cancer cell inhibition activity of the analogs with longer alkyl chains compared to PG11047 in human colon cancer cell line HCT116, and a more than ten-fold increase in human lung cancer cell line A549. Evaluation of the inhibition of spermine oxidase (SMOX) showed no activity for PG11047, but activity was observed for its higher symmetrical homologues. Comparison with a reference SMOX inhibitor MDL72527 showed nine-fold better activity for the best performing HPG analog.
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- cancer therapy
- polyamine analogs
- spermine oxidase