School-based vaccination programmes: An evaluation of school immunisation delivery models in England in 2015/16

K. Tiley, E. Tessier, J. M. White, N. Andrews, V. Saliba, M. Ramsay, M. Edelstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Schools are increasingly being used to deliver vaccines. In 2015/16 three school-based vaccination programmes were delivered to adolescents in England: human papillomavirus (HPV), meningococcal groups A, C, W and Y disease (MenACWY) and tetanus, diphtheria and polio (Td/IPV). We assessed how school delivery models impact vaccine coverage and how a delivery model for one programme may impact another. Routinely collected national data were analysed to ascertain the school grade achieving highest coverage within each one-dose programme and to compare two-dose delivery models (within year vs across years) for the HPV vaccine. We also assessed whether the HPV delivery model was associated with coverage in other programmes. MenACWY and Td/IPV coverage was highest in younger school grades. Overall similar HPV coverage was achieved with both models (86.7% two doses within one year, 85.8% two doses across two years, p = 0.20). High two-dose HPV coverage in 2015/16 was reported in areas that achieved high HPV coverage in 2013/14 when three doses were required. Areas with high three-dose coverage in 2013/14 achieved higher coverage with a within-one-year approach (92.0% vs 85.2%, p < 0.001), whilst areas reporting low coverage in 2013/14 achieved lower but similar coverage in 2015/16 with both models (79.2% vs 80.9% p = 0.29). MenACWY and Td/IPV coverage were higher in areas with high HPV coverage in 2013/14. Among high HPV coverage areas, MenACWY coverage was higher when HPV doses were delivered within year. School-based programmes should be offered as early as feasible and acceptable to optimise coverage. The choice of delivery model for HPV should take into account local performance and provider experience. Single providers may delivery multiple vaccines and the delivery for one programme may affect the performance of other programmes. Providers should consider local circumstances including past and current vaccine coverage and factors influencing coverage when deciding what delivery model to adopt.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3149-3156
Number of pages8
Issue number15
StatePublished - 30 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 The Authors


  • Human papillomavirus- HPV
  • Immunisation
  • Meningococcal disease
  • Vaccine delivery model
  • Vaccine-preventable diseases
  • Vaccines


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