Saving during relearning as an implicit measure of memory in closed-head-injured patients

Eli Vakil, Dorya Langleben-Cohen, Yael Frenkel, Zeev Groswasser, Sara Aberbuch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Memory disturbance is the most prominent residual deficit after closed-head injury (CHI). Recent studies have demonstrated that CHI patients, just like global amnesic patients, show impaired memory when measured explicitly, but notwhen measured implicitly. Many theorists have concluded that the saving paradigm introduced by Ebbinghaus in 1885 can beviewed as a measure of implicit memory. Thus, it was hypothesized that saving will be preserved in CHI patients. Thirteen CHI patients and 13 control subjects were tested individually on three word lists. Each list was tested in two phases:learning and relearning. There was a different time delay between the two phases for each list:1 h,1 day, and 3days.The groups were compared on explicit-recall and implicit-saving measures of memory. Time delay from learning to relearning did not affect the performance of either group. As expected, the results show that overall, the control grouprecalledmorewords than the CHI group, but the groups did not differ on the overall amount of saving measure. However, when saving wasmeasured just on the initial learning and relearning trials, the groups did differ. The results are discussed interms ofthe relationship between saving and implicit memory. Key Words: Closed-head injury-Saving-Relearning-Memory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-175
Number of pages9
JournalNeuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1996


  • Closed-head injury
  • Memory
  • Relearning
  • Saving


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