Salmonella manipulates the host to drive pathogenicity via induction of interleukin 1β

Mor Zigdon, Jasmin Sawaed, Lilach Zelik, Dana Binyamin, Shira Ben-Simon, Nofar Asulin, Rachel Levin, Sonia Modilevsky, Maria Naama, Shahar Telpaz, Elad Rubin, Aya Awad, Wisal Sawaed, Sarina Harshuk-Shabso, Meital Nuriel-Ohayon, Mathumathi Krishnamohan, Michal Werbner, Omry Koren, Sebastian E. Winter, Ron N. ApteElena Voronov, Shai Bel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Acute gastrointestinal infection with intracellular pathogens :like Salmonella Typhimurium triggers the release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β). However, the role of IL-1β in intestinal defense against Salmonella remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-1β production is detrimental during Salmonella infection. Mice lacking IL-1β (IL-1β -/-) failed to recruit neutrophils to the gut during infection, which reduced tissue damage and prevented depletion of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing commensals. Changes in epithelial cell metabolism that typically support pathogen expansion, such as switching energy production from fatty acid oxidation to fermentation, were absent in infected IL-1β -/- mice which inhibited Salmonella expansion. Additionally, we found that IL-1β induces expression of complement anaphylatoxins and suppresses the complement-inactivator carboxypeptidase N (CPN1). Disrupting this process via IL-1β loss prevented mortality in Salmonella-infected IL-1β -/- mice. Finally, we found that IL-1β expression correlates with expression of the complement receptor in patients suffering from sepsis, but not uninfected patients and healthy individuals. Thus, Salmonella exploits IL-1β signaling to outcompete commensal microbes and establish gut colonization. Moreover, our findings identify the intersection of IL-1β signaling and the complement system as key host factors involved in controlling mortality during invasive Salmonellosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3002486
JournalPLoS Biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

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© 2024 Zigdon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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