Role of adenosine A1 and A3 receptors in regulation of cardiomyocyte homeostasis after mitochondrial respiratory chain injury

Vladimir Shneyvays, Dorit Leshem, Tova Zinman, Liaman K. Mamedova, Kenneth A. Jacobson, Asher Shainberg

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49 Scopus citations


Activation of either the A1 or the A3 adenosine receptor (A1R or A3R, respectively) elicits delayed cardioprotection against infarction, ischemia, and hypoxia. Mitochondrial contribution to the progression of cardiomyocyte injury is well known; however, the protective effects of adenosine receptor activation in cardiac cells with a respiratory chain deficiency are poorly elucidated. The aim of our study was to further define the role of A1R and A3R activation on functional tolerance after inhibition of the terminal link of the mitochondrial respiratory chain with sodium azide, in a state of normoxia or hypoxia, compared with the effects of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener diazoxide. Treatment with 10 mM sodium azide for 2 h in normoxia caused a considerable decrease in the total ATP level; however, activation of adenosine receptors significantly attenuated this decrease. Diazoxide (100 μM) was less effective in protection. During treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes with hypoxia in the presence of 1 mM sodium azide, the A1R agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine was ineffective, whereas the A 3R agonist 2-chloro-N6-iodobenzyl-5′-N- methylcarboxamidoadenosine (Cl-IB-MECA) attenuated the decrease in ATP level and prevented cell injury. Cl-IB-MECA delayed the dissipation in the mitochondrial membrane potential during hypoxia in cells impaired in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In cells with elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration after hypoxia and treatment with NaN3 or after application of high doses of NaN3, Cl-IB-MECA immediately decreased the elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration toward the diastolic control level. The A1R agonist was ineffective. This may be especially important for the development of effective pharmacological agents, because mitochondrial dysfunction is a leading factor in the pathophysiological cascade of heart disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H2792-H2801
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number6 57-6
StatePublished - Jun 2005


  • ATP-sensitive K
  • Ca transience
  • Channel
  • Heart disease
  • Hypoxia
  • Ischemia
  • Sodium azide


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