We report herein on several phenomenological electrode-solution interactions which determine the performance of lithium and lithium ion batteries. This review is based on extensive studies of the behavior of Li, lithiated carbons and lithiated transition metal oxide electrodes in a wide variety of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. These studies included spectroscopic measurements (FTIR, XPS, EDAX), morphological and structural analysis (XRD, SEM, AFM) in conjunction with impedance spectroscopy, EQCM and standard electrochemical techniques. It appears that the performance of both Li, Li-C anodes and LixMOy cathodes depends on their surface chemistry in solutions. We address complicated surface film formation on these electrodes, which either contribute to electrode stabilization or to capacity fading due to an increase in the electrodes' impedance. Several common classical phenomena occurring in these systems are reviewed and discussed.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of Power Sources|
|State||Published - Aug 2000|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Partial support for this work was obtained from Merck, Germany, NEDO — New Energy Development Organization, Japan, the Israeli National Science Foundation (NSF), and the German Ministry of Science BMBF, within the framework of the DIP program.