Purpose: To analyze the impact of systematic second-look surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) performed 1 year after resection of the primary tumor in asymptomatic patients at high risk of developing peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). PATIENTS AND Methods: From 1999 to 2009, 41 patients without any sign of recurrence on imaging studies underwent second-look surgery aimed at treating limited PC earlier and more easily. They were selected based on 3 primary tumor-associated criteria: resected minimal synchronous macroscopic PC (n = 25), synchronous ovarian metastases (n = 8), and perforation (n = 8). Results: PC was found and treated with complete surgery plus HIPEC in 23 of the 41 (56%) patients. The other patients underwent complete abdominal exploration plus systematic HIPEC. Median follow-up was 30 (9-109) months. One patient died postoperatively at day 69. Grade 3-4 morbidity was low (9.7%). The 5-year overall survival rate was 90% and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 44%. Peritoneal recurrences occurred in 7 patients (17%), 6 of whom had macroscopic PC discovered during the second-look (26%), and one patient had no macroscopic PC (6%). In the univariate analysis, the presence of PC at second-look surgery was a significant risk factor for recurrence (P = 0.006). Conclusion: Selection criteria for high-risk patients appear to be accurate. In these patients, the second-look strategy treated peritoneal carcinomatosis preventively or at an early stage, yielding promising results. This study has allowed us to design a multicentric randomized trial (comparing the second-look + HIPEC approach versus standard follow-up alone), which is beginning.