Resolving haplotype variation and complex genetic architecture in the human immunoglobulin kappa chain locus in individuals of diverse ancestry

Eric Engelbrecht, Oscar L. Rodriguez, Kaitlyn Shields, Steven Schultze, David Tieri, Uddalok Jana, Gur Yaari, William D. Lees, Melissa L. Smith, Corey T. Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Immunoglobulins (IGs), critical components of the human immune system, are composed of heavy and light protein chains encoded at three genomic loci. The IG Kappa (IGK) chain locus consists of two large, inverted segmental duplications. The complexity of the IG loci has hindered use of standard high-throughput methods for characterizing genetic variation within these regions. To overcome these limitations, we use long-read sequencing to create haplotype-resolved IGK assemblies in an ancestrally diverse cohort (n = 36), representing the first comprehensive description of IGK haplotype variation. We identify extensive locus polymorphism, including novel single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and novel structural variants harboring functional IGKV genes. Among 47 functional IGKV genes, we identify 145 alleles, 67 of which were not previously curated. We report inter-population differences in allele frequencies for 10 IGKV genes, including alleles unique to specific populations within this dataset. We identify haplotypes carrying signatures of gene conversion that associate with SNV enrichment in the IGK distal region, and a haplotype with an inversion spanning the proximal and distal regions. These data provide a critical resource of curated genomic reference information from diverse ancestries, laying a foundation for advancing our understanding of population-level genetic variation in the IGK locus.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGenes and Immunity
Early online date6 Jun 2024
DOIs
StateE-pub ahead of print - 6 Jun 2024

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Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.

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