Remote photoacoustic sensing using single speckle analysis by an ultra-fast four quadrant photo-detector

Benjamin Lengenfelder, Martin Hohmann, Moritz Späth, Daniel Scherbaum, Manuel Weiß, Stefan J. Rupitsch, Michael Schmidt, Zeev Zalevsky, Florian Klämpfl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The need for tissue contact makes photoacoustic imaging not applicable for special medical applications like wound imaging, endoscopy, or laser surgery. An easy, stable, and contact-free sensing technique might thus help to broaden the applications of the medical imaging modality. In this work, it is demonstrated for the first time that remote photoacoustic sensing by speckle analysis can be performed in the MHz sampling range by tracking a single speckle using a four quadrant photo-detector. A single speckle, which is created by self-interference of surface back-reflection, is temporally analyzed using this photo-detector. Phantoms and skin samples are measured in transmission and reflection mode. The potential for miniaturization for endoscopic application is demonstrated by fiber bundle measurements. In addition, sensing parameters are discussed. Photoacoustic sensing in the MHz sampling range by single speckle analysis with the four quadrant detector is successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the endoscopic applicability is proven, and the sensing parameters are convenient for photoacoustic sensing. It can be concluded that a single speckle contains all the relevant information for remote photoacoustic signal detection. Single speckle sensing is therefore an easy, robust, contact-free photoacoustic detection technique and holds the potential for economical, ultra-fast photoacoustic sensing. The new detection technique might thus help to broaden the field of photoacoustic imaging applications in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2109
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number6
StatePublished - 17 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Endoscopy
  • Photoacoustic
  • Remote sensing
  • Speckle


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