Remember and know judgments during recognition in chronic schizophrenia

Theo G.M. van Erp, Tyler A. Lesh, Barbara J. Knowlton, Carrie E. Bearden, Molly Hardt, Katherine H. Karlsgodt, David Shirinyan, Vikas Rao, Michael F. Green, Kenneth L. Subotnik, Keith Nuechterlein, Tyrone D. Cannon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Deficits in learning and memory are among the most robust correlates of schizophrenia. It has been hypothesized that these deficits are in part due to reduced conscious recollection and increased reliance on familiarity assessment as a basis for retrieval. The Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm was administered to 35 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 35 healthy controls. In addition to making "remember" and "know" judgments, the participants were asked to make forced-choice recognition judgments with regard to details about the learning episode. Analyses comparing response types showed a significant reduction in "remember" responses and a significant increase in "know" responses in schizophrenia patients relative to controls. Both patients and controls recalled more details of the learning episode for "remember" compared to "know" responses, although, in particular for "remember" responses, patients recalled fewer details compared with controls. Notably, patients recognized fewer inter-item but not intra-item stimulus features compared with controls. These findings suggest deficits in organizing and integrating relational information during the learning episode and/or using relational information for retrieval. A Dual-Process Signal Detection interpretation of these findings suggests that recollection in chronic schizophrenia is significantly reduced, while familiarity is not. Additionally, a unidimensional Signal Detection Theory interpretation suggests that chronic schizophrenia patients show a reduction in memory strength, and an altered criterion on the memory strength distribution for detecting new compared with old stimuli but not for detecting stimuli that are remembered versus familiar. Taken together, these findings are consistent with a deficit in recollection and increased reliance on familiarity in making recognition memory judgments in chronic schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-190
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Mar 2008
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors like to thank Malin McKinley from the Staglin Family Music Festival Center for the Assessment and Prevention of Prodromal States (CAPPS) and Samantha Swain and Michael DeGroot from the Aftercare Center at the University of California Los Angeles, U.S.A., for data management, Dr. Tara Niendam from CAPPS, UCLA for aid with coding of medications, professor John C. Dunn from the School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, Australia, for help with the estimation of the old–new and remember–know criteria, professor Andrew P. Yonelinas from the Center for Mind and Brain, University of California Davis, U.S.A., for checking the formulas used for estimation of recollection and familiarity using the Dual-Process Signal Detection model, and the participants for taking part in the study. This research was funded by NIMH Grant P50 MH066286 to K.H.N., NIH Grants MH65079, MH066286, GM072978 and RR021992 to T.D.C., and a gift to the UCLA Foundation by Garen and Shari Staglin.

Funding Information:
Funding for this study was provided by NIMH Grant P50 MH066286 to K.H.N., NIH Grants MH65079, MH066286, GM072978 and RR021992 to T.D.C., and a gift to the UCLA Foundation by Garen and Shari Staglin. None of the funding sources had any further role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.


  • Chronic
  • Context
  • Episodic
  • Familiarity
  • Know
  • Memory
  • Psychosis
  • Recognition
  • Recollection
  • Remember
  • Schizophrenia


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