Refresh Algorithm for Ensuring 100% Memory Availability in Gain-Cell Embedded DRAM Macros

Roman Golman, Netanel Nachum, Tomer Cohen, Robert Giterman, Adam Teman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Gain-cell embedded DRAM (GC-eDRAM) is a dense, low power option for embedded memory implementation, supporting low supply voltages; however, it suffers from limited data retention time (DRT) and requires periodic refresh operations, limiting its use only to applications that can tolerate temporary memory blockages. In this work we propose a memory architecture based on a novel refreshing algorithm that provides 100% memory availability for the user, resulting in no performance loss for any possible access pattern. This approach allows the memory to have a standard SRAM interface ('vanilla interface'), supporting direct replacement of the SRAM memory with a GC-eDRAM memory. The algorithm/architecture was implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology resulting in more than 20% area reduction compared with standard SRAM solutions, for large memory implementations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9495814
Pages (from-to)105831-105840
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • GC-eDRAM
  • Low power
  • embedded memory
  • gain cells
  • hidden refresh
  • logic-compatible eDRAM
  • retention time


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