Reduced susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to lipid peroxidation after fluvastatin therapy is associated with the hypocholesterolemic effect of the drug and its binding to the LDL

Osamah Hussein, Sorina Schlezinger, Mira Rosenblat, Shlomo Keidar, Michael Aviram

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193 Scopus citations

Abstract

Increased plasma cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic patients is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. The impaired removal of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) in these patients results in the presence of their LDL in the plasma for a long period of time and thus can contribute to its enhanced oxidative modification. In the present study we analyzed the effect of the hypocholesterolemic drug, fluvastatin, on plasma and LDL susceptibilities to oxidation during 24 weeks of therapy. Fluvastatin therapy (40 mg/day for 24 weeks) in 10 hypercholesterolemic patients resulted in 30%, 34% and 22% decrements in plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, respectively. This effect has been achieved after only 4 weeks of therapy. We next studied the effect of fluvastatin therapy on LDL susceptibility to oxidation in vivo and in vitro. 2.2-Azobis, 2-amidinopropane hydrochloride (AAPH, 100 M)-induced plasma lipid peroxidation was decreased by 70% and 77% after 12 weeks and 24 weeks of fluvastatin therapy respectively. The lag time required for the initiation of CuSO4 (10 μM)-induced LDL oxidation was prolonged by 1.2- and 2.5-fold, after 12 and 24 weeks of fluvastatin therapy respectively. We next analyzed the in vitro effect of fluvastatin on plasma and LDL susceptibilities to oxidation. Preincubation of plasma or LDLs that were obtained from normal subjects with 0.1 μg/ml of fluvastatin, caused 20% or 57% reduction in AAPH-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively Similarly, a 1.6- and 2.7-fold prolongation of the lag time required for CuSO4-induced LDL oxidation was found following LDL incubation with 0.1 and 1.0 μg/ml of fluvastatin, respectively. To find out possible mechanisms that contribute to this inhibitory effect of fluvastatin on LDL oxidizability, we analyzed the antioxidative properties of fluvastatin. Fluvastatin did not scavenge free radicals and did not inhibit linoleic acid peroxidation. Fluvastatin also did not act as a chelator of copper ions. However, fluvastatin was shown to specifically bind mainly to the LDL surface phospholipids and this interaction altered the lipoprotein charge as evident from the 38% decrement in the electrophoretic mobility of fluvastatin-treated LDL, in comparison to nontreated LDL. The inhibitory effect of fluvastatin therapy on LDL oxidation probably involves both its stimulatory effect on LDL removal from the circulation, as well as a direct binding effect of the drug to the lipoprotein. We thus conclude that the antiatherogenic properties of fluvastatin may not be limited to its hypocholesterolemic effect, but could also be related to its ability to reduce LDL oxidizability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-18
Number of pages8
JournalAtherosclerosis
Volume128
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 Jan 1997
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Fluvastatin
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • LDL lipid peroxidation
  • Statins

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