Recommendations on the Use of Oral Orthotic Occlusal Appliance Therapy for Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: Current Evidence and Clinical Practice

Darpan Bhargava, Camilo Chávez Farías, Ignacio Ardizone García, Louis G. Mercuri, Suzie Bergman, M. Anthony Pogrel, Andrew J. Sidebottom, Samer Srouji, Mehmet Fatih Şentürk, P. Elavenil, Kishore Moturi, P. Anantanarayanan, Preeti G. Bhargava, Vankudoth Dal Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: ‘Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs)’ denote an umbrella term that includes arthritic, musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint, the masticatory muscles, and the associated tissues. Occlusal devices are one of the common treatment modalities utilized in the conservative management of TMDs. The indications for the available ‘oral splints’ or ‘oral orthotic occlusal devices’ remain ambiguous. Methods: A joint international consortium was formulated involving the subject experts at TMJ Foundation, to resolve the current ambiguity regarding the use of oral orthotic occlusal appliance therapy for the temporomandibular joint disorders based on the current scientific and clinical evidence. Results: The recommendations and the conclusion of the clinical experts of the joint international consort has been summarized for understanding the indications of the various available oral orthotic occlusal appliances and to aid in the future research on oral occlusal orthotics. Conclusion: The use of the oral orthotic occlusal appliances should be based on the current available scientific evidence, rather than the archaic protocols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-589
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India.


This work was academically supported by TMJ Foundation, TMJ Consultancy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. The authors declare that no funds, grants, or other support were received during the preparation of this manuscript.

FundersFunder number
TMJ Consultancy
TMJ Foundation


    • Dental
    • Disk
    • Disorder
    • Joint diseases
    • Maxillofacial surgery
    • Night guard
    • Occlusal
    • Oral
    • Orthopedic
    • Orthosis
    • Orthotic
    • Orthotic device
    • Splint
    • TMJ
    • Temporomandibular
    • Temporomandibular joint


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