Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of hypogonadism in men

Bruno Lunenfeld, George Mskhalaya, Michael Zitzmann, Stefan Arver, Svetlana Kalinchenko, Yuliya Tishova, Abraham Morgentaler

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    232 Scopus citations


    Hypogonadism or Testosterone Deficiency (TD) in adult men as defined by low levels of serum testosterone accompanied by characteristic symptoms and/or signs as detailed further on can be found in long-recognized clinical entities such as Klinefelter syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, pituitary or testicular disorders, as well as in men with idiopathic, metabolic or iatrogenic conditions that result in testosterone deficiency. These recommendations do not encompass the full range of pathologies leading to hypogonadism (testosterone deficiency), but instead focus on the clinical spectrum of hypogonadism related to metabolic and idiopathic disorders that contribute to the majority of cases that occur in adult men.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5-15
    Number of pages11
    JournalAging Male
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - 1 Mar 2015

    Bibliographical note

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2015 The Author(s).


    • Hypogonadism
    • Late-onset
    • Men
    • Testosterone
    • Testosterone deficiency


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