Raloxifene-mediated increase in matrix metalloproteinase-1 production by activated monocytes

Jeanette A. Ardans, Arnon Blum, Paul R. Mangan, Shlomo Wientroub, Richard O. Cannon, Larry M. Wahl

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26 Scopus citations


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), proteolytic enzymes produced by monocytes, may contribute to atherosclerotic arterial wall remodeling and to plaque rupture. Because estrogen influences the synthesis of MMPs, we examined the effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on monocyte MMP production. Human primary blood monocytes treated with raloxifene (10 μmol/L) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in MMP-1 production by monocytes. The enhancement of MMP-1 production by raloxifene in LPS-activated monocytes occurred through a cyclooxygenase-2- and prostaglandin E2-independent mechanism. Additionally, compared with monocytes acquired during the placebo phase, peripheral blood monocytes from 5 of 6 healthy postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene (60 mg daily for 1 month) in a clinical trial produced significantly higher levels of MMP-1 when the monocytes were activated with LPS. Furthermore, serum obtained during the raloxifene phase from 4 of these subjects, when added to control monocytes, significantly enhanced LPS-induced MMP-1 production compared with that from serum obtained during the placebo phase. In summary, raloxifene increases the production of MMP-1 in activated monocytes; this effect may be favorable in atherosclerotic arterial wall remodeling but unfavorable for plaque stability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1265-1268
Number of pages4
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2001
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial ResearchZ01DE000456


    • Atherosclerosis
    • Matrix metalloproteinases
    • Monocytes
    • Plaque
    • Raloxifene


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