This study analyzes the services public libraries in Israel provide to two groups of immigrants: immigrants from the FSU and Ethiopia, and researches how these two groups use the libraries. Questionnaires were completed by 319 library users, ages 14–30, from both ethnic groups and by 45 directors of libraries, located in neighborhoods with a concentration of these two ethnic groups. It was found that many more services were provided within the multicultural approach and less is done within the “melting pot” approach. Significant differences were found between special services offered to Ethiopian immigrants as opposed to those from the FSU. Many more libraries offer books in Russian and employ librarians who speak Russian compared to the few Amharic speakers. Also, special services for new immigrants were provided in more libraries for immigrants from the FSU than for immigrants from Ethiopia. These differences can be explained by the size of the two communities, the availability of materials (there are many books in Russian as compared to a lack of Amharic literature), and the availability of librarians from these ethnic groups. Immigrants from Ethiopia require the library to study and prepare school assignments, and find themselves spending more time in the reference library, while immigrants from the FSU borrow more books. Both groups use the public library in Israel more than they did in their countries of origins.