Prussian blue analogues with Na2NixCoyMnzFe(CN)6-multimetallic structures as positive and hydrogen vanadate as negative electrodes in aqueous Na-ion batteries for solar energy storage applications

Pappu Naskar, Biplab Biswas, Sourav Laha, Anjan Banerjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Low-cost and environmentally benign aqueous Na-ion batteries are the suitable choice for large-scale solar energy storage applications. Na-ion batteries with Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) as positive and hydrogen vanadate (H2V3O8/HVO) as negative electrodes in hydrogel electrolytes exhibit excellent durability, good power capability and moderate energy density. In this work, three variants of PBAs, namely Na2Ni0.33Co0.33Mn0.33Fe(CN)6 (PBA-1), Na2Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3Fe(CN)6 (PBA-2) and Na2Ni0.2Co0.5Mn0.3Fe(CN)6 (PBA-3), were synthesized by tuning the compositions of nitrogen-coordinated transition metals such as Ni, Co and Mn. The trend of capacity in PBAs is the function of the Ni content as Ni2+ is electrochemically inert. PBA-1, PBA-2 and PBA-3 exhibited specific capacities of 100, 75 and 120 mA h g−1, respectively, at 100 mA g−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis illustrated solid-state electronic conductivity, and PBA-1 exhibited the highest electronic conductivity of 23 × 10−4 S cm−1 compared to PBA-2 (15 × 10−4 S cm−1) and PBA-3 (7.4 × 10−4 S cm−1). Although Ni does not contribute to the capacity, it improves the cycling life of the active material. PBA-3 demonstrated 86% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 300 mA g−1, whereas PBA-1 and PBA-2 respectively showed 91% and 92% retention. The lower Ni content in PBA-3 is accountable for the comparatively poor cycling performance. However, based on the optimum performances of PBAs, a 1.2 V rated PBA-1//HVO full cell was assembled, which delivered a specific capacity of 65 mA h g−1 (at 100 mA g−1), an energy density of 78 W h kg−1 (at 121 W kg−1), a power density of 520 W kg−1 (at 31 W h kg−1) and a good cycling life (81% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 300 mA g−1). A 5 V/4 mA h prototype device was also developed for the practical demonstration of solar energy storage applications. Based on the energy storage performances, cost, safety and environmental issues, this Na-ion battery could be scaled up for large-scale production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1413
Number of pages13
JournalEnergy Advances
Volume3
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 May 2024
Externally publishedYes

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