OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) followed by bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy in patients with prostatic urothelial carcinoma (PUC) and compare the results of studies using combined TURP and BCG with studies in which TURP was not performed. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with bladder cancer and PUC were treated with TURP followed by six weekly intravesical instillations of BCG. Response was determined and monitored by periodic bladder and prostatic urethra biopsies and urinary cytology. Also, the outcome of previous series using similar methodology was compared with the outcome of studies in which TURP was not performed. RESULTS In all, 20 patients with PUC were treated with TURP followed by intravesical instillations of BCG. The median follow-up was 52.5 months. All patients had an initial complete response (CR). The prostatic urethra 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 90%. However, bladder and prostatic urethra 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was only 30%. Five patients (25%) died from urothelial carcinoma (UC) after a median period of 58.5 months (two from bladder cancer metastases and three from upper tract metastases). The long-term prostatic urethra CR rate in studies using TURP before immunotherapy was significantly higher than the CR rate in studies using immunotherapy alone (P < 0.001). However, there was no difference when bladder and prostatic urethra CR rates were considered together (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION In patients with PUC, TURP before BCG immunotherapy eliminates PUC in most cases, and is probably the preferred treatment for this disease. The risk of UC-specific mortality in these patients is high.
- Bacillus Calmete-Gúerin immunotherapy
- Prostatic urothelial carcinoma
- Transurethral prostatectomy