Prospect of making XPS a high-throughput analytical method illustrated for a CuxNi1-xOycombinatorial material library

Lucas C.W. Bodenstein-Dresler, Adi Kama, Johannes Frisch, Claudia Hartmann, Anat Itzhak, Regan G. Wilks, David Cahen, Marcus B¨ar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Combinatorial material science crucially depends on robust, high-throughput characterization methods. While X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) may provide detailed information about chemical and electronic properties, it is a time-consuming technique and, therefore, is not viewed as a high-throughput method. Here we present preliminary XPS data of 169 measurement spots on a combinatorial 72 × 72 cm2CuxNi1-xOy compositional library to explore how characterization and evaluation routines can be optimized to improve throughput in XPS for combinatorial studies. In particular, two quantification approaches are compared. We find that a simple integration (of XPS peak regions) approach is suited for fast evaluation of, in the example system, the [Cu]/([Cu] + [Ni]) ratio. Complementary to that, the time-consuming (XPS peak-) fit approach provides additional insights into chemical speciation and oxidation state changes, without a large deviation of the [Cu]/([Cu] + [Ni]) ratio. This insight suggests exploiting the fast integration approach for 'real time' analysis during XPS data collection, paving the way for an 'on-the-fly' selection of points of interest (i.e., areas on the sample where sudden composition changes have been identified) for detailed XPS characterization. Together with the envisioned improvements when going from laboratory to synchrotron-based excitation sources, this will shorten the analysis time sufficiently for XPS to become a realistic characterization option for combinatorial material science.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7996-8002
Number of pages7
JournalRSC Advances
Volume12
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - 8 Mar 2022

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