Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.
|Journal||Nature Reviews Materials|
|State||Published - 31 Mar 2016|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
J.W.C. thanks J. Min for his help in the volumetric-energy-density evaluation. J.W.C. acknowledges the support of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (NRF-2012-R1A2A1A01011970 and NRF-2014R1A4A1003712). D.A. acknowledges help from the Israel Science Foundation, in the framework of the INREP project. This work was also made possible by NPRP grant #5-569-2-232 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).
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