Product Mixing in Compact Lie Groups

David Ellis, Guy Kindler, Noam Lifshitz, Dor Minzer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


If G is a group, we say a subset S of G is product-free if the equation xy=z has no solutions with x,y,z ∈ S. For D ∈ ℕ, a group G is said to be D-quasirandom if the minimal dimension of a nontrivial complex irreducible representation of G is at least D. Gowers showed that in a D-quasirandom finite group G, the maximal size of a product-free set is at most |G|/D1/3. This disproved a longstanding conjecture of Babai and Sós from 1985. For the special unitary group, G=(n), Gowers observed that his argument yields an upper bound of n-1/3 on the measure of a measurable product-free subset. In this paper, we improve Gowers' upper bound to exp(-cn1/3), where c>0 is an absolute constant. In fact, we establish something stronger, namely, product-mixing for measurable subsets of (n) with measure at least exp(-cn1/3); for this product-mixing result, the n1/3 in the exponent is sharp. Our approach involves introducing novel hypercontractive inequalities, which imply that the non-Abelian Fourier spectrum of the indicator function of a small set concentrates on high-dimensional irreducible representations. Our hypercontractive inequalities are obtained via methods from representation theory, harmonic analysis, random matrix theory and differential geometry. We generalize our hypercontractive inequalities from (n) to an arbitrary D-quasirandom compact connected Lie group for D at least an absolute constant, thereby extending our results on product-free sets to such groups. We also demonstrate various other applications of our inequalities to geometry (viz., non-Abelian Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities), mixing times, and the theory of growth in compact Lie groups. A subsequent work due to Arunachalam, Girish and Lifshitz uses our inequalities to establish new separation results between classical and quantum communication complexity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSTOC 2024 - Proceedings of the 56th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
EditorsBojan Mohar, Igor Shinkar, Ryan O�Donnell
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9798400703836
StatePublished - 10 Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes
Event56th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2024 - Vancouver, Canada
Duration: 24 Jun 202428 Jun 2024

Publication series

NameProceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
ISSN (Print)0737-8017


Conference56th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.


  • Hypercontractivity
  • Lie Groups
  • Product Free Sets


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