Primary Intracranial Hemorrhage: Characteristics, Distribution, Risk Factors, and Outcomes—A Comparative Study between Jewish and Arab Ethnic Groups in Northern Israel

Jamal Saad, Chen Hanna Ryder, Mahmod Hasan, Galina Keigler, Samih Badarny

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1 Scopus citations


Background and purpose: This study aimed to investigate the differences in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) between Jews and Arabs residing in northern Israel, focusing on risk factors, hemorrhage volume, and functional outcome. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted utilizing a population-based registry to investigate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes. The registry consisted of inpatients diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke. Due to the wide variation in data on ICH characteristics and the limited availability of population-based data on predictors of ICH survival and functional outcomes, we collected retrospective data on all adult patients admitted to the Galilee Medical Center with a diagnosis of ICH. Data were obtained from the registry covering the period from 2013 to 2019. Ethnic differences and risk factors associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were examined within a diverse population of 241 patients, comprising 52.70% Jews (n = 127) and 47.30% Arabs (n = 114). Results: The results of this study revealed significant differences in age, obesity rates, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) location between the two ethnic groups. Hypertension emerged as the most prevalent condition among ICH patients in both ethnic groups (76.70%), followed primarily by anticoagulant use (63.60%), dyslipidemia (60.70%), diabetes (44.60%), obesity (30.60%), smoking (24.60%), and a history of cardiovascular disease (21.80%). Furthermore, 20.90% of the patients had a history of previous cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Arab patients with ICH were generally younger (62.90 ± 16.00 years) and exhibited higher rates of obesity (38.70%) compared to Jewish patients with ICH (70.17 ± 15.24 years, 23% obesity; p = 0.001, p = 0.013, respectively). Hemorrhage volume was identified as a crucial determinant of patient outcomes, with larger volumes associated with poorer Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at discharge and higher mortality rates. Interestingly, patients without hypertension had higher hemorrhage volumes compared to those with hypertension. The extent of hemorrhage into the ventricles did not significantly correlate with mRS at discharge in our dataset. Conclusions: This study highlights significant differences in the characteristics and outcomes of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) between Jews and Arabs in northern Israel. The findings reveal variations in age, obesity rates, and ICH location between the two groups. While hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor for both populations, other risk factors differed. Notably, hemorrhage volume emerged as a crucial prognostic factor, aligning with previously published data. These findings underscore the necessity for tailored approaches that consider ethnic-specific factors in the risk assessment, prevention, and management of ICH. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop interventions aimed at improving outcomes and enhancing healthcare practices in ICH management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4993
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number15
StatePublished - 29 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Arab
  • Jewish
  • ethnic differences
  • functional outcome
  • hemorrhage volume
  • intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)
  • risk factors
  • stroke


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