Predicting long-term outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Yuri Rassovsky, Yifat Levi, Eugenia Agranov, Michal Sela-Kaufman, Anna Sverdlik, Eli Vakil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of brain damage, resulting in long-term disability. The ever increasing life expectancies among TBI patients necessitate a critical examination of the factors that influence long-term outcome. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of premorbid factors (which were identified in our previous work) and acute injury indices to long-term functioning following TBI. Method: Eighty-nine participants with moderate-to-severe TBI were evaluated at an average of 14.2 years postinjury (range: 1-53 years) with neuropsychological battery, medical examination, clinical interviews, and questionnaires. Results: TBI severity predicted cognitive, social, and daily functioning outcomes. After controlling for injury severity, preinjury intellectual functioning predicted cognitive status, as well as occupational, social, emotional, and daily functioning. Preinjury leisure activity also predicted cognitive, emotional, and daily functioning, whereas socioeconomic status failed to predict any of these variables. Conclusion: Findings offer further support for the cognitive reserve construct in explaining significant variance in TBI outcome, over and above the variance explained by injury severity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)354-366
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 21 Apr 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Taylor & Francis.


This study was carried out as part of a PhD dissertation by Yifat Levi at Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. The authors thank Irene Kopel for her assistance with interviewing participants and data management. No conflicts of interest exist for any of the authors. This work was supported by the Israeli Ministry of Defense, Rehabilitation Department, and the National Institute for the Rehabilitation of the Brain Injured. The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first two authors should be regarded as joint first authors. Address correspondence to: Yuri Rassovsky, Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel (E-mail:

FundersFunder number
National Institute for the Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation Department
Ministry of Defense


    • Cognitive reserve
    • Functional outcome
    • Head injury
    • Injury severity
    • Rehabilitation
    • Traumatic brain injury


    Dive into the research topics of 'Predicting long-term outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this