Post-Traumatic Stress Disappointment: Disappointment and Its Role in PTSD

Tuly Flint, Natti Ronel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Disappointment is an under-studied concept in the field of PTSD; it is nevertheless apparent in testimonies of individuals diagnosed with PTSD. Self-disappointment, disappointment with others, and disappointment with the Sublime are mentioned in the literature yet were not studied and described in the context of PTSD and spiritual recovery. This study aims to fill this gap; 50 individuals of varying backgrounds who recovered from PTSD and attributed their recovery to spirituality were interviewed. Participants underwent a variety of traumas, had different piety levels, and used different recovery methods. Findings revealed a mechanism where individuals diagnosed with PTSD experience three-dimensional disappointment (TDD) with self, others, and the Sublime, and that this disappointment breeds a sense of disconnection and helplessness. Findings suggest also that disappointment plays a significant role in both creating PTSD and intensifying the suffering from it. Implications for caregivers, therapists, and individuals with PTSD are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Early online date30 Oct 2023
StateE-pub ahead of print - 30 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2023.


  • PTSD
  • disappointment
  • recovery
  • self-disappointment
  • spirituality
  • trauma


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