Positive Solitude Scale: Theoretical Background, Development and Validation

Yuval Palgi, Dikla Segel-Karpas, Sharon Ost Mor, Yaakov Hoffman, Amit Shrira, Ehud Bodner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The current set of studies was aimed at examining the theoretical basis, development process, and psychometric properties of a new scale for measuring positive solitude (PS). The theoretical idea behind the development of this construct was to develop a stand-alone scale for measuring the positive aspects of an individual's ability to volitionally choose to spend time by him/herself. Using five different samples, we examined the face validity, exploratory/confirmatory factor analysis results, construct validity, and test–retest reliability of the new scale. The results were replicated across five studies, demonstrating a single factor for the 9-item PS scale which had good convergent and divergent validity and acceptable test–retest reliability. Overall, this new short scale has excellent psychometric properties. This scale may serve as a tool for further examining the phenomenon of PS, a concept that is under-developed in the psychological literature. PS can also be perceived as an important personal asset, when other personal resources may be depleted. A better understanding of the PS phenomenon may thus enhance development of interventions aimed at improving this ability. PS may be especially important for older adults, who sometimes face challenges with engaging in varied social activities and need to cope with more time alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3357-3384
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.


  • Assessment
  • Loneliness
  • Positive solitude
  • Psychometrics
  • Solitude
  • Validation


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