Photonic Crystal Flip-Flops: Recent Developments in All Optical Memory Components

Yonatan Pugachov, Moria Gulitski, Dror Malka

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This paper reviews recent advancements in all-optical memory components, particularly focusing on various types of all-optical flip-flops (FFs) based on photonic crystal (PC) structures proposed in recent years. PCs, with their unique optical properties and engineered structures, including photonic bandgap control, enhanced light–matter interaction, and compact size, make them especially suitable for optical FFs. The study explores three key materials, silicon, chalcogenide glass, and gallium arsenide, known for their high refractive index contrast, compact size, hybrid integration capability, and easy fabrication processes. Furthermore, these materials exhibit excellent compatibility with different technologies like CMOS and fiber optics, enhancing their versatility in various applications. The structures proposed in the research leverage mechanisms such as waveguides, ring resonators, scattering rods, coupling rods, edge rods, switches, resonant cavities, and multi-mode interference. The paper delves into crucial properties and parameters of all-optical FFs, including response time, contrast ratio, and operating wavelength. Optical FFs possess significant advantages, such as high speed, low power consumption, and potential for integration, making them a promising technology for advancing optical computing and optical memory systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6467
Issue number19
StatePublished - 28 Sep 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • FDTD
  • PWE
  • flip flop
  • optical communication
  • optical computing
  • optical memory
  • photonic crystals


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