Persistent post-concussive syndrome in children after mild traumatic brain injury is prevalent and vastly underdiagnosed

Eli Fried, Uri Balla, Merav Catalogna, Eran Kozer, Adi Oren-Amit, Amir Hadanny, Shai Efrati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Data on epidemiology and prognosticators of persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the pediatric population is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PPCS in children after mTBI and to identify clinical variables in children who are at high risk for developing PPCS. A multicenter, retrospective matched cohort in which PPCS symptoms were evaluated in children 8–15-year-old, 6–60 months after being admitted to the emergency department because of mTBI. The control group included children admitted to the emergency department because of uncomplicated distal radius fractures. The children's guardians were interviewed for the presence of PPCS symptoms using the "Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire". A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of PPCS. Two-hundred and five children were included in the mTBI group and 205 in the control. The median time from the injury was 33.5 months in the mTBI group and 33.8 in the control. The prevalence of PPCS in the mTBI group was 25.3% and PPCS like symptoms in the control was 2.4%, p < 0.001. Within the 6–60 months period, the PPCS prevalence was not influenced by the time that elapsed from the injury. In the mTBI group, motor vehicle accidents and adolescence were found to be risk factors for PPCS. PPCS is underdiagnosed in the pediatric population and 25% of children admitted to the ED due to mTBI may suffer from PPCS. Screening guidelines should be implemented to identify and properly treat these children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4364
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 14 Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


The study was supported by the research fund of the Shamir Medical Center, Israel. Shamir Medical Center’s research fund had no role in the design and conduct of the study.

FundersFunder number
Shamir Medical Center, Israel


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