Perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with a history of multiple pregnancy losses according to number of previous pregnancy losses

Tzuria Peled, Eyal Lang Ben Nun, Hila Hochler, Hen Y. Sela, Michal Lipschuetz, Ari Weiss, Sorina Grisaru-Granovsky, Misgav Rottenstreich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: While it is widely acknowledged that pregnancy losses can lead to negative outcomes for both mothers and fetuses, there is limited information available on the specific levels of risk associated with each additional pregnancy loss. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of number of previous pregnancy losses among nulliparous women on maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study. The study population included all nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered in all university-affiliated obstetrical centers in a single geographic area between 2003 and 2021. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of women who delivered at our medical centers and had varying numbers of previous pregnancy losses were compared with women who had no previous pregnancy loss. The primary outcome of this study was preterm delivery rate at <37 weeks of gestation. The secondary outcomes were adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Univariate analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: During the study period, 97,904 nulliparous women met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of those women, 84,245 (86%) had no previous pregnancy losses (reference group), 10,724 (11%) had 1 previous pregnancy loss, 2150 (2.2%) had 2 previous pregnancy losses, 516 (0.5%) had 3 previous pregnancy losses, 160 (0.2%) had 4 previous pregnancy losses, and 99 (0.1%) had ≥5 previous pregnancy losses. Women who had previous pregnancy losses had significantly higher rates of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, diabetes mellitus (pregestational and gestational), unplanned cesarean delivery, perinatal death, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, and neonatal hypoglycemia. The risks of preterm delivery and most other adverse obstetrical outcomes correlated with the number of previous pregnancy losses. Multivariate analyses showed that each previous pregnancy loss was associated with an additional, significant, increased risk of preterm delivery of 14% at <37 weeks of gestation, 37% at <34 weeks of gestation, 45% at <32 weeks of gestation, and 77% at <28 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSION: A history of previous pregnancy losses increased the risk of preterm delivery and other perinatal outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. To minimize perinatal complications, obstetricians should be aware of the risks and complications in this unique population, consider close monitoring of the cervical length, and maintain high vigilance in case of complications with special attention to other potentially modifiable risks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100946
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study received no funding.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Inc.


  • complications
  • miscarriage
  • pregnancy losses
  • preterm delivery
  • recurrent miscarriages
  • risk factors
  • women


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