Performance of Integrated IoT Network with Hybrid mmWave/FSO/THz Backhaul Link

Pranay Bhardwaj, Vedant Bansal, Nikhil Biyani, Shiv Shukla, S. M. Zafaruddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Establishing end-to-end connectivity of Internet of Things (IoT) network with the core for collecting sensing data from remote and hard-to-reach terrains is challenging. In this article, we analyze the performance of an IoT network integrated with a wireless backhaul link (BHL) for data collection. We propose a solution that involves a self-configuring protocol for aggregate node (AN) selection in an IoT network, which sends the data packet to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over radio frequency (RF) channels. We adopt a novel hybrid transmission technique for wireless backhaul employing opportunistic selections combining (OSC) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) that simultaneously transmits the data packet on mmWave (mW), free space optical (FSO), and terahertz (THz) technologies to take advantage of their complementary characteristics. We employ the decode-and-forward (DF) protocol to integrate the IoT and BHLs and provide physical layer performance assessment using outage probability and average bit-error rate (BER) under diverse channel conditions. We also develop simplified expressions to gain a better understanding of the system's performance at a high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide computer simulations to compare different wireless backhaul technologies under various channel and SNR scenarios and demonstrate the performance of the data collection using the integrated link.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3639-3652
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.


  • Backhaul
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • data collection
  • maximal ratio combining (MRC)
  • performance analysis
  • pointing error
  • selection combining
  • terahertz communication


Dive into the research topics of 'Performance of Integrated IoT Network with Hybrid mmWave/FSO/THz Backhaul Link'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this