Percolation Theories for Quantum Networks

Xiangyi Meng, Xinqi Hu, Yu Tian, Gaogao Dong, Renaud Lambiotte, Jianxi Gao, Shlomo Havlin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Quantum networks have experienced rapid advancements in both theoretical and experimental domains over the last decade, making it increasingly important to understand their large-scale features from the viewpoint of statistical physics. This review paper discusses a fundamental question: how can entanglement be effectively and indirectly (e.g., through intermediate nodes) distributed between distant nodes in an imperfect quantum network, where the connections are only partially entangled and subject to quantum noise? We survey recent studies addressing this issue by drawing exact or approximate mappings to percolation theory, a branch of statistical physics centered on network connectivity. Notably, we show that the classical percolation frameworks do not uniquely define the network’s indirect connectivity. This realization leads to the emergence of an alternative theory called “concurrence percolation”, which uncovers a previously unrecognized quantum advantage that emerges at large scales, suggesting that quantum networks are more resilient than initially assumed within classical percolation contexts, offering refreshing insights into future quantum network design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1564
Issue number11
StatePublished - 20 Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • critical phenomena
  • entanglement distribution
  • hypergraph
  • networks of networks
  • percolation
  • quantum network


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