Pediatric Trauma During COVID-19: What Have We Learned?

Shiran Sudri, Shany Shitrit, Dalit Porat Ben Amy, Wadie Abu Dahoud, Amir Laviv, Imad Abu El-Naaj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel pneumonia-like illness, COVID-19 (C-19), emerged in Wuhan, China. In March 2020, as the incidence of C-19 rose, the Israeli government, like that of other nations, declared a national state of emergency, and a full, general lockdown was announced. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and characteristics of pediatric maxillofacial trauma presentation during the 2020 C-19 lockdown restrictions and compare them to periods outside lockdown between 2019 and 2020 (pre-C-19). Study Design, Setting, Sample: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included all pediatric patients (0-18 years) referred to the emergency department (ED) at Tzafon Medical Center, Israel, and diagnosed with maxillofacial injuries. Patients with missing demographic data and patients who did not complete the medical examination were excluded. Predictor/Exposure/Independent Variable: The exposure variable is the date of injury—2020 C-19 lockdown period compared to the previous year (pre-C-19). Main Outcome Variable(s): The main outcome variable was the number of pediatric maxillofacial trauma ED arrivals out of total pediatric ED arrivals and out of total maxillofacial ED arrivals. Covariates: Covariates included patient demographics, etiology, and place of injury. Analyses: The association between categorical variables was tested using the Fisher exact test or χ2 test for binary variables with relative risk when appropriate, logistic regression model used to predict outcome variable. P values were 2-tailed and statistical significance was defined as P < .05. Results: The study sample comprised 1174 patients. Relative risk of presenting with oral and maxillofacial trauma out of all pediatric ED patients was 1.85 comparing C-19 period to pre-C-19 period (confidence interval [1.65; 2.073], P < .0001). Most of the injuries recorded during the C-19 restrictions occurred in the domestic environment (56.1% compared to 47.5% in pre-C-19, P < .001). Incidences necessitating treatment increased from 45.8 to 55% during C-19 (P = .002). Conclusion and Relevance: During C-19, there was a higher rate of pediatric injuries compared to pre-C-19. The incidence of domestic oral and maxillofacial injuries increased despite the considered home safety.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)546-553
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Volume82
Issue number5
Early online date13 Feb 2024
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

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