Patterning gradient properties from sub-micrometers to millimeters by magnetolithography

Tatikonda Anand Kumar, Amos Bardea, Yechiel Shai, Alexander Yoffe, Ron Naaman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


A new method is presented for patterning surfaces with gradient properties. The method is based on magnetolithography in which the surface patterning is performed by applying a gradient of a magnetic field on the substrate, using paramagnetic metal masks in the presence of a constant magnetic field. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on the substrate, and they assemble according to the field and its gradients induced by the mask. Once they pattern the substrate, they protect their sites on the substrate from interacting with any other species. The areas not protected by the NPs can be covered by molecules that chemically bind to the substrate. After these molecules are bound, the NPs are removed, and other molecules may be adsorbed on the newly exposed area. The new technique is based on a parallel process that can be carried out on a full wafer. It provides high resolution, it creates gradient continuously from submicrometers to milimeters, and it can be performed on surfaces that are not flat and that are even on the inside of a tube. The gradient that is formed is not limited to a specific property or type of substrate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2262-2267
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - 9 Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Gradient
  • Hydrophilic
  • Hydrophobic
  • Lithography
  • Patterning


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