A new P- and F-co-doped amorphous carbon nitride (PFCN) has been synthesized via sol-gel-mediated thermal condensation of dicyandiamide. Such synthesized P- and F-co-doped carbon nitride displayed a well-defined mesoporous nanostructure and enhanced visible light absorption region up to infrared with higher BET surface area of 260.93 m2 g−1; the highest recorded value for phosphorus-doped carbon nitride materials. Moreover, the formation mechanism is delineated and the role of templates was found to be essential not only in increasing the surface area but also in facilitating the co-doping of P and F atoms. Co-doping helped to narrow the optical band gap to 1.8 eV, thus enabling an excellent photocatalytic activity for the aqueous reduction of carbon dioxide into methanol under visible-light irradiation, which is fifteen times higher (119.56 μmol g−1 h−1) than the bare carbon nitride. P doping introduced Brønsted acidity into the material, turning it into an acid-base bifunctional catalyst. Consequently, the material was also investigated for the thermal conversion of common carbohydrates into furanics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Operational Program Research, Development and Education – European Regional Development Fund, projects no. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000754 and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000416 of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. This research was also supported by grant from Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic (project No. FV20066). The authors thank Dr. V. Ranc for Raman analysis, Ms. J. Stráská and Ms. P. Bazgerová for SEM/TEM analysis, Dr. Juri Ugolotti and Mr. I. Popa for solid‐state NMR analysis, and Dr. S. Kalytchuk for PL analysis. The authors also thank Mr. O. Tomanec and Mr. M. Petr for HRTEM‐elemental mapping data and HR‐XPS measurements, respectively.
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- bifunctional catalysts
- biomass upgrading
- carbon dioxide
- carbon nitride