Optimized Synthesis of HMX Nanoparticles Using Antisolvent Precipitation Method

Raj Kumar, Prem Felix Siril, Pramod Soni

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40 Scopus citations


Nanoparticles of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were prepared by an antisolvent precipitation method. The effect of different experimental parameters such as temperature of antisolvent and concentration of solution on particle size of nano-HMX was studied systematically. A higher temperature (70°C) of the antisolvent and lower concentration of HMX in acetone (5 mM) favored the formation of smaller particles. Average particle size ranged from 30 to 128 nm under different experimental conditions. Nano-HMX was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC). FTIR, XRD, and TGA-DSC studies revealed that the nano-HMX was in the β-polymorphic form.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-287
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Energetic Materials
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2 Oct 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

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© 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • antisolvent precipitation
  • concentration
  • nano-HEM
  • particle size
  • β-HMX


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