This article integrates three central theories of optimism–pessimism (OP). The combination of the shared components of these theories – outcome expectancies, emotions, and behavioral intention – may produce an integrative academic achievement evaluation. Little has been written regarding the differentiation between general and domain-specific OP, a factor that is essential in describing the evaluation process of academic achievement. In this paper, we will examine this differentiation and discuss how an integrative model of the three theories is strengthened by two domains: (a) heuristic versus systematic processing styles and (b) the level of confidence in the accuracy of evaluating events. The gap between required confidence in high-personal-interest domains and actual confidence in moderate general OP influences systematic processing style and planned behavior. Based on these principles, an intervention program is suggested.
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© The Author(s) 2012.
- heuristic versus systematic processing styles