Optimal transport exponent in spatially embedded networks

G. Li, S. D.S. Reis, A. A. Moreira, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, J. S. Andrade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


The imposition of a cost constraint for constructing the optimal navigation structure surely represents a crucial ingredient in the design and development of any realistic navigation network. Previous works have focused on optimal transport in small-world networks built from two-dimensional lattices by adding long-range connections with Manhattan length rij taken from the distribution Pij∼rij-α, where α is a variable exponent. It has been shown that, by introducing a cost constraint on the total length of the additional links, regardless of the strategy used by the traveler (independent of whether it is based on local or global knowledge of the network structure), the best transportation condition is obtained with an exponent α=d+1, where d is the dimension of the underlying lattice. Here we present further support, through a high-performance real-time algorithm, on the validity of this conjecture in three-dimensional regular as well as in two-dimensional critical percolation clusters. Our results clearly indicate that cost constraint in the navigation problem provides a proper theoretical framework to justify the evolving topologies of real complex network structures, as recently demonstrated for the networks of the US airports and the human brain activity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number042810
JournalPhysical Review E
Issue number4
StatePublished - 18 Apr 2013


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