The efficient formulation of silicon based, high-loading electrode with good capacity retention and cycling stability remains challenging. To gain a better understanding of the ongoing processes and failure mechanisms occurring during battery performance, operando micro-Raman spectroscopy is helpful to map the active silicon sites. Herein, we present the investigation of the electrochemical performance of anodes composed of plasmonic metal (Ag and Au) decorated silicon, designed for enhancing Raman signal. Following the discovery that only a partial amount of the electroactive material undergoes lithiation in the first cycle, we show that the plasmonic metal tips can enhance the connectivity of the Si particles. The micro-Raman mapping of electroactive silicon material reveals how the plasmonic metals influence the distribution of silicon active sites during battery cycling. The ratio of electroactive Si is found to increase from Si to Si/Au and Si/Ag electrodes, and the results are explained in terms of interconnectivity of the particles.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||ACS Applied Energy Materials|
|State||Published - 26 Mar 2018|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
*E-mail: David.Zitoun@biu.ac.il. ORCID Yair Ein-Eli: 0000-0002-3823-4588 David Zitoun: 0000-0003-3383-6165 Funding This work is supported by the Planning & Budgeting Committee of the Council of High Education and the Prime Minister Office of Israel, in the framework of the INREP project. Y.M. thanks the Israeli Ministry of Science, Technology and Space for financial support. Y.E.-E. acknowledges the support and funding of the EU FP7 “Battery and Super-capacitors Characterization and Testing” (BACCARA) Project and Grand Energy Technion Program (GTEP). Notes The authors declare no competing financial interest.
© 2018 American Chemical Society.
- Li-ion battery
- Raman spectroscopy
- galvanic replacement reaction
- silicon anode