On the capacity game of public watermarking systems

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51 Scopus citations


Watermarking codes are analyzed as a game between two players: an information hider and a decoder, on the one hand, and an attacker on the other hand. It is assumed that the covertext (the original data within which the message is hidden) is drawn from a memoryless stationary source and its realization is available at the information hider only. The information hider is allowed to cause some tolerable level of distortion to the covertext, and the resulting distorted data can suffer some additional amount of distortion caused by an attacker who aims at erasing the message. Motivated by a worst case approach, we assume that the attacker is informed of the hiding strategy taken by the information hider and the decoder, while they are uninformed of the attacking scheme. The capacity is expressed as the limit of a sequence of single-letter expressions under the assumption that the encoder uses constant composition codes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-524
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
was supported by the French government [CNRS: Action Jeune Equipe ECOS (Etude et Caractérisations des Ondes de Surfaces].


  • Capacity
  • Coding with side information
  • Information hiding
  • Maximum mutual information (MMI) decoder
  • Public watermarking
  • Randomized code
  • Steganography
  • Universal decoding
  • Watermarking


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