Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Nimer Assy, Faris Nassar, Gattas Nasser, Maria Grosovski

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

138 Scopus citations

Abstract

The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1809-1815
Number of pages7
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume15
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 21 Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Fatty acids
  • Fatty liver
  • Lipids
  • Liver steatosis
  • Monounsaturated
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • Oleic acid
  • Olive oil

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