Obligations and prohibitions in Talmudic deontic logic

M. Abraham, D. M. Gabbay, U. Schild

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    8 Scopus citations


    This paper examines the deontic logic of the Talmud. We shall find, by looking at examples, that at first approximation we need deontic logic with several connectives: OTA Talmudic obligation FTA Talmudic prohibition FDA Standard deontic prohibition ODA Standard deontic obligation. In classical logic one would have expected that deontic obligation OD is definable by - ODA FD:A and that OT and FT are connected by - OTA FT:A This is not the case in the Talmud for the T (Talmudic) operators, though it does hold for the D operators. We must change our underlying logic. We have to regard OT, FT and OD, FD as two sets of operators, where OT and FT are independent of one another and where we have some connections between the two sets. We shall list the types of obligation patterns appearing in the Talmud and develop an intuitionistic deontic logic to accommodate them. We shall compare Talmudic deontic logic with modern deontic logic.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)117-148
    Number of pages32
    JournalArtificial Intelligence and Law
    Issue number2-3
    StatePublished - Aug 2011


    • Contrary to duty
    • Deontic logic
    • Obligations
    • Prohibitions
    • Talmudic logic


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