O-Band Grating Couplers Using Silicon Nitride Structures

Eli Ohana, Dror Malka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To test silicon photonics component performances, a silicon (Si) grating coupler (GC) is used to couple the light from a single-mode fiber (SMF) into the chip. However, silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides have recently become more popular for realizing photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which may be attributable to their exceptional characteristics, such as minimal absorption and low back reflection (BR) in the O-band spectrum. Thus, to test the photonic chip, a waveguide converter from Si3N4 to Si needs to be added to the photonic circuit, which can lead to more power losses and BR. To avoid this conversion, we propose in this manuscript a configuration of a GC based on Si3N4 structures, which can be employed to minimize the footprint size and obtain better performance. The achievement of high efficiency was possibly obtained by optimizing the structural properties of the waveguide and the coupling angle from the SMF. The results demonstrated high efficiency within the O-band spectrum by using a wavelength of 1310 nm. Notably, at this specific wavelength, the findings indicated a coupling efficiency of −5.52 db. The proposed design of the GC consists of a uniform grating that offers improvements regarding affordability and simplicity in manufacturing compared to other GC models. For instance, using a reflector or a GC with non-uniform grooved teeth introduces challenges in fabrication and incurs higher costs. Thus, the proposed design can be useful for improving the testing abilities of the Si3N4 photonic chips used in transceiver systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9951
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • FDTD
  • O-band
  • SiN
  • grating couplers
  • photonic integrated circuits


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