The replacement of the chloro-substituent of (E)-α-chloro-β-nitrostyrene (VI) by substituted anilines in acetonitrile, which gives the corresponding nitro-enamines (VII), is first-order in the amine, giving ΔH= 3·7–5·7 kcal mol–1, ΔS=–50 to –58 cal mol–1 K–1 and a Hammett ρ value of 3. Replacing the vinylic hydrogen atom of (VI) by deuterium resulted in an isotope effect of ca. 1 with several anilines, and in the reaction of aniline with (VI) in MeCN–D2O no deuterium is incorporated into the product (VII). A multi-step mechanism, in which the nucleophilic attack step (k1) to form the zwitterion (I) is followed by its reversal (k-1) or by expulsion of chloride ion from (I)(k2), with kobs=k1k2/k–1, is suggested. The absence of catalysis in the reactions of (VI) and the activating effect of the nitro-group in nucleophilic vinylic substitution are discussed.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2|
|State||Published - 1975|