Quantum sensing exploits the strong sensitivity of quantum systems to measure small external signals. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is one of the most promising platforms for real-world quantum sensing applications, predominantly used as a magnetometer. However, its magnetic field sensitivity vanishes when a bias magnetic field acts perpendicular to the NV axis. Here, we introduce a different sensing strategy assisted by the nitrogen nuclear spin that uses the entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins to restore the magnetic field sensitivity. This, in turn, allows us to detect small changes in the magnetic field angle relative to the NV axis. Furthermore, based on the same underlying principle, we show that the NV coupling strength to magnetic noise, and hence its coherence time, exhibits a strong asymmetric angle dependence. This allows us to uncover the directional properties of the local magnetic environment and to realize maximal decoupling from anisotropic noise.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We gratefully thank Norman Y. Yao for valuable discussions and advice. Z.Q. also thanks Matthew Turner for diamond annealing assistance. This work was primarily supported by ARO Grant No. W911NF-17-1-0023. Fabrication of samples was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences Office, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0019300. A.Y. also acknowledges support from the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials, NSF Grant No. DMR-1231319, and the Aspen Center of Physics supported by NSF grant PHY-1607611.
© 2021, The Author(s).